The Spherical Earth
"When we're talking about science, it's very important to recognize that we talk about all these different disciplines... biology, chemistry, physics and all that. Every science is connected to every other science... they are not separate entities."
"By merely claiming that all relevant professionals on Earth who unanimously disagree with your wild claim are "lying" and that an ocean of evidence you can't explain is "fake" does not make for a convincing argument. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence."
(1) The Sun & Moon (Foucault Pendulum).
(2) Ships on the Horizon (ships appear as if they “emerge from the waves” because the world is not flat).
(3) Varying Star Constellations (This observation was originally made by Aristotle (384-322 BCE).
(4) Shadows, Sticks & Sundials (Eratosthenes (276-194 BCE) used this principle to calculate the circumference of the Earth quite accurately).
(5) Seeing Farther from Higher (This phenomena is caused by the curvature of the Earth, and would not happen if the Earth was flat).
(6) Fly on a Plane (we now have planes that can circle the entire Earth without stopping).
(7) Look at Other Planets (In 1610, Galileo observed the moons of Jupiter rotating around it).
(9) The Center of Gravity (Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation).
(10) Images from Space.
During a solar eclipse, the shadow of the moon moves across Earth’s surface at nearly 2,000 kilometers per hour as the eclipse unfolds. This picture of the Aug. 11, 1999, solar eclipse was one of the last ever taken from the Russian Mir space station. Image Credit: Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales via NASA
The Flat Earth Fixion
"A 'Fixion' is a fiction, an untruth that is true or posited as truth, a narrativization of the fix, so the liar of the paradox is given time to elaborate both the false as true and the true as false - that is the dialectic. The production of language goes into infinite regression and self-proliferation, so the conditions that are proposed for thought turn out themselves to be unthinkable." - Poetics of the Common Knowledge
"The qualities of bodies, which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees, and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments, are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever."- Principia
Earth curves approximately 6 feet in 9 miles.
In order for Earth to be flat, you have to deny everything in this entire book:
Flatlanders miss this simple keyword... geometry is a science for a reason... it dictates the 3rd dimension... you don't have to like it... and you can deny it all you want too ... but the geometric facts will always remain... that's why they're considered fundamentals... and a flat earth by any basic geometric standard, is a total impossibility.
According to Airliners.net, Aerolineas Argentinas operates the world's southernmost (scheduled) commercial route in the world, from BUE (Buenos Aires) to AKL (Auckland). Mount Erebus is currently the most active volcano in Antarctica and is the current eruptive zone of the Erebus hotspot. That's the only reason why commercial flights do not fly directly over the South Pole. In other words... it's not safe or smart to fly over the South Pole!
"We are taking frequency fields, vibrational fields... and we are turning them into this, apparently solid but not so, holographic, illusory reality... which only exists, not only on our screen, but only exists in a series of micro-frequencies that we call visible light."
"There's a pretty pathetic level of critical thought when we see Flatlanders using the Internet to denounce the very same Science that allows the Internet to actually work."
"Important new insights have been gained over the past decade in the framework of loop quantum gravity, whose modern variants are among the division's main research directions. This approach, which complements and extends the old geometrodynamics approach, employs a non-perturbative and background independent framework allowing (at least in principle) to describe the fluctuations of geometry itself, and leading to a discrete structure at the Planck scale. On this basis, it is now possible to study the full quantum dynamics of gravity and space-time itself." - www.aei.mpg.de
"Quantum Gravity, broadly construed, is a physical theory (still ‘under construction’) incorporating both the principles of general relativity and quantum theory. Such a theory is expected to be able to provide a satisfactory description of the microstructure of spacetime at the so-called Planck scale, at which all fundamental constants of the ingredient theories, c (the velocity of light in vacuo), ℏ (Planck's constant), and G (Newton's constant), come together to form units of mass, length, and time. This scale is so remote from current experimental capabilities that the empirical testing of quantum gravity proposals along standard lines is rendered near-impossible.
In most, though not all, theories of quantum gravity, the gravitational field itself is also quantized. Since the contemporary theory of gravity, general relativity, describes gravitation as the curvature of spacetime by matter and energy, a quantization of gravity seemingly implies some sort of quantization of spacetime geometry. Insofar as all extant physical theories rely on a classical spacetime background, this presents not only extreme technical difficulties, but also profound methodological and ontological challenges for the philosopher and the physicist. Though quantum gravity has been the subject of investigation by physicists for over eighty years, philosophers have only just begun to investigate its philosophical implications." - stanford.edu
THE BEDFORD LEVEL EXPERIMENT
The Bedford Level Experiment is a series of observations carried out along a six-mile (9.7 km) length of the Old Bedford River on the Bedford Level, Norfolk, England, during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It was an attempt to determine the shape of the Earth. Early results seemed to prove the Earth to be flat, but most later attempts to reproduce the observations firmly support that the Earth is a sphere. At the point chosen for all the experiments the river is a slow-flowing drainage canal running in an uninterrupted straight line for a six-mile (9.7 km) stretch to the north-east of the village of Welney. The most famous of the observations, and the one that was taught in schools until photographs of the Earth from space became available, involved a set of three poles fixed at equal height above water level along this length. As the surface of the water was assumed to be level, the discovery that the middle pole, when viewed carefully through a theodolite, was almost three feet (0.91 m) higher than the poles at each end was finally accepted as a new proof that the surface of the earth was indeed curved.
"With a knowledge of eye level and perspective (convergent lines and pitch), an artist can control the physiological sensation of the viewer. He can create the illusion for the viewer of looking up at an object, right at it, or below it." - byui.edu
WMAP confirmed that the universe should obey the rules of Euclidean geometry.
The Galileo Spacecraft was launched on Oct. 18, 1989, carried by Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission. Galileo arrived at Jupiter on Dec. 7, 1995, after gravitational assist flybys of Venus and Earth, and became the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter. It launched the first probe into Jupiter, directly measuring its atmosphere. On September 21, 2003, after 14 years in space and 8 years in the Jovian system, Galileo's mission was terminated by sending the orbiter into Jupiter's atmosphere at a speed of over 30 miles per second.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was a pivotal figure in the development of modern astronomy, both because of his contributions directly to astronomy, and because of his work in physics and its relation to astronomy. He provided the crucial observations that proved the Copernican hypothesis, and also laid the foundations for a correct understanding of how objects moved on the surface of the earth (dynamics) and of gravity. One could, with considerable justification, view Galileo as the father of both modern astronomy and modern physics.
In 1957, the world was surprised to see the Soviets launch the first satellite into orbit, with most expecting the USA to be the first to do so. The satellite, named Sputnik 1, transmitted a simple radio signal back to earth for 21 days and remained in orbit for a further 6 months. The USA responded to this great technological achievement by making the conquest of space a top national priority. This marked the beginning of the "space race".
The triple-right triangle: You move in a straight line for a long enough distance. Turn right 90° degrees, walk in that same direction for the same distance. Turn again to the right 90° degrees and walk again the same distance. After this, you'll be at the starting point. This is not possible on a flat surface.
"If you hold a "false belief" about Gravity to be true (which all Flatlanders do)... you cannot understand how the Earth's form is spherical, let alone comprehend flight paths, travel times and distances, lightspeed, curvature or the Cosmological Physics of the Universe as a whole."
Why don't we feel Earth move?
"Earth moves very fast. It spins (or rotates) at a speed of about 1,000 miles (1600 kilometers) per hour and orbits around the Sun at a speed of about 67,000 miles (107,000 kilometers) per hour. We do not feel any of this motion because these speeds are constant. The spinning and orbital speeds of Earth stay the same, so we do not feel any acceleration or deceleration. You can only feel motion if your speed changes. For example, if you are in a car which is moving at a constant speed on a smooth surface, you will not feel much motion. However, when the car accelerates or when the brakes are applied, you do feel motion." - caltech.edu
So what about the question of the night sky, and why it appears to rotate the way it does?
There are two straightforward explanations for this, and from this observation alone, they’re indistinguishable from one another.
The entire sky — and all the stars in it — spins around the Earth with a period of 24 hours, causing the stars to change position as we observe it from Earth.
The entire sky is — to the best of our observations — stationary, and appears to spin because the Earth is rotating beneath it.
If the Earth were truly stationary, then the Sun would have to move to different locations relative to the night sky throughout the year. In addition to its once-a-day orbit around the Earth, it would have to migrate in one additional circle relative to the background stars each year, in order to explain why the visible constellations vary throughout the seasons.
On the other hand, if the Earth is allowed to move, then it can also move around the Sun, explaining why different constellations appear in the night sky at different times of the year.
In the Earth-is-stationary model, the Sun needs to change its location in the sky significantly throughout the year: in addition to its once-a-day journey around the Earth, it needs to change its location relative to the celestial sphere by a whopping 47 degrees every six months. Why the Sun moves in this path so slowly relative to the celestial sphere but so quickly relative to Earth is not explained in this model.
On the other hand, if the Earth is moving, this would result simply from the Earth moving around the Sun while it rotates on its tilted axis. If the Earth is the moving thing, its rotation and its revolution are allowed to be separate quantities, which explain the vastly different timescales for days (the period of Earth’s rotation) and years (the period of Earth’s revolution).
If you insist that the Earth remain stationary and the celestial sphere rotates, you can still make a working model for the Earth, Sun, Moon and stars, but it requires you to put the motions of the Sun (an extra revolution tilted at 23 degrees relative to the celestial sphere per year) and the Moon (an extra revolution tilted at 5 degrees relative to the Sun per lunar month) by hand, with no physical explanation for these motions.
But if you allow the Earth to move, you can not only explain the daily motion of the stars, Moon, and Sun relative to the Earth’s sky by the Earth’s rotation, you can explain the lunar and solar motions relative to the rest of the sky as revolutionary orbits due to the force of gravity.
"Earth is moving at a fixed rate, and we’re all moving along with it, and that’s why we don’t feel Earth’s spin. If Earth’s spin were suddenly to speed up or slow down, you would definitely feel it." - earthsky.org
A horizontal line must be straight, but a horizontal surface is not necessarily straight or perfectly flat. And that's not the only Horizon line either. There's a Vertical Horizon line as well. A vertical line is a line perpendicular to the horizon. If the Earth were flat, all vertical lines would always be parallel, yet, in reality, they are all found to diverge in every single experiment and photo... proving, conclusively time and time again, that Earth is spherical.
In classical mechanics, a "reactive centrifugal force" forms part of an action–reaction pair with a centripetal force.
In accordance with Newton's first law of motion, an object moves in a straight line in the absence of any external forces acting on the object. A curved path may however ensue when a physical acts on it; this force is often called a centripetal force, as it is directed toward the center of curvature of the path. Then in accordance with Newton's third law of motion, there will also be an equal and opposite force exerted by the object on some other object, such as a constraint that forces the path the curved, and this reaction force, the subject of this article, is sometimes called a reactive centrifugal force"', as it is directed in the opposite direction of the centripetal force.
Unlike the inertial force or fictitious force known as centrifugal force, which always exists in addition to the reactive force in the rotating frame of reference, the reactive force is a real Newtonian force that is observed in any reference frame. The two forces will only have the same magnitude in the special cases where circular motion arises and where the axis of rotation is the origin of the rotating frame of reference. It is the reactive force that is the subject of this article.
Hey Flat Earthers... NASA is Not the only space agency on earth! What about these?
RUSSIAN FEDERAL SPACE AGENCY
EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY
CANADIAN SPACE AGENCY
LITHUANIAN SPACE ASSOCIATION
SRI LANKA SPACE AGENCY
THE HUNGARIAN SPACE OFFICE
ISRAEL SPACE AGENCY
INSTITUTE FOR ASTRONOMY, ASTROPHYSICS,
SPACE APPLICATIONS & REMOTE SENSING, GREECE
BELARUS SPACE AGENCY
UK SPACE AGENCY
CHINA NATIONAL SPACE ADMINISTRATION
AZERBAIJAN NATIONAL AEROSPACE AGENCY
BRAZILIAN SPACE AGENCY
CROATIAN SPACE AGENCY
JAPAN AEROSPACE EXPLORATION AGENCY
STATE SPACE AGENCY OF UKRAINE
KAZAKHSTAN NATIONAL SPACE AGENCY
NORTH KOREAN COMMITTEE OF SPACE TECHNOLOGY
Are they all lying too?
If you have fallen for the "Flat Earth Theory" you will most definitely want to re-think your position. The idea that the Earth is Flat is a dogmatic principle handed down to you by fear filled religious authorities and primitive of old.
After the 5th century BC, no Greek writer of repute thought the world was anything but spherical. If you're claiming that Earth is Flat in the year 2015, you have obviously been completely fooled into doing so. There must be some type of mental deficiency happening in your brain if your willing to completely deny empirical facts that have been well established and accepted for thousands of years.
Eric Dubay and Matt Boylan seem to be the leaders of this new Flat Earth Movement. Yet, they are also the two scam artists who are using your own ignorance against you in one of the worst ways possible, by claiming they are telling you the truth... when they are blatantly filling your head with huge lies. This hurts real truth in more ways than one.
1. Causes separation and conflict within the realms of Alternative and Esoteric media.
2. Creates a fanatical group-think mentality within those who lack scientific knowledge, logic and critical thought.
3. Distracts from and disrupts proven fundamental truths.
To Eric Dubay and Matt Boylan, and anyone who supports these two Flat Earth liars: knowingly spreading lies while intentionally claiming truth is a horrible, dishonorable act against one's soul... not to mention all the effects on the rest of humanity and the Earth as well.
"In physics, Data is King. If an idea disagrees with an accurate measurement... the idea is wrong."
1: a belief or set of beliefs that is accepted by the members of a group without being questioned or doubted.
2: an official system of principles or tenets concerning faith, morals, behavior, etc., as of a church.
3: a specific tenet or doctrine authoritatively laid down, as by a church.
4: prescribed doctrine proclaimed as unquestionably true by a particular group.
5: a settled or established opinion, belief, or principle.
Flat Earth: a belief or set of beliefs that is accepted by the members of a group without being questioned or doubted. Otherwise known as DOGMA!
1. a coherent group of tested general propositions, commonly regarded as correct, that can be used as principles of explanation and prediction for a class of phenomena.
1. logically connected; consistent.
1. the means by which the presence, quality, or genuineness of anything is determined; a means of trial.
1. the act of offering or suggesting something to be considered, accepted, adopted, or done.
1. to take into account; consider.
1. conforming to fact or truth; free from error; accurate.
1. a fundamental, primary, or general law or truth from which others are derived.
1. a fact, occurrence, or circumstance observed or observable.
"The mind of a freethinker can possess a million ideas... while a million fanatics can have their minds possessed by a single idea."
How To Blindly Worship a Flat Earth:
1. Deny all known Physics and Mathematics.
2. Ignore the Moon Phases.
3. Deny Fundamental Geometry.
4. Ignore Gravity.
5. Confuse Eye Level, Perspective and the Horizon.
6. Ignore Timezones.
7. Deny the Seasonal Constellations.
8. Ignore Solar and Lunar Eclipses.
9. Never Provide Tangible Evidence.
10. Only Source Dubay and Boylan.
Bonus Trait: ** Lack Common Sense. **
ps: make sure to tell everyone that Plato, Aristotle, Newton and Galileo were all liars and never proved anything... and remember to never provide proof of these claims.
SPHERE EARTH + FACT = SCIENCE
FLAT EARTH + FACT = DOGMA
SPHERE EARTH + GEOMETRY = HARMONY
FLAT EARTH + GEOMETRY = DISHARMONY
SPHERE EARTH + PERCEPTION = VISUAL REALITY
FLAT EARTH + PERCEPTION = VIRTUAL FANTASY
SPHERE EARTH + SPACE = COSMOLOGY
FLAT EARTH + SPACE = DOES NOT COMPUTE
SPHERE EARTH + ISAAC NEWTON = GRAVITY
FLAT EARTH + ISAAC NEWTON = MASONIC PROPAGANDA
SPHERE EARTH + SATELLITES = GPS NAVIGATION
FLAT EARTH + SATELLITES = NASA LIES
SPHERE EARTH + TIME = TIMEZONES
FLAT EARTH + TIME = DOES NOT COMPUTE
SPHERE EARTH + MOON PHASES = VISUAL REALITY
FLAT EARTH + MOON PHASES = VIRTUAL HOLOGRAM
SPHERE EARTH + FLIGHT PATHS = GLOBAL TRAVEL
FLAT EARTH + FLIGHT PATHS = CLUSTER-F*CK
SPHERE EARTH + THE SUN = VISUAL REALITY
FLAT EARTH + THE SUN = DELUSIONAL FANTASY
Flat Earth Theory - A Decline in Consciousness
The Flat Earth Theory has to be one of the most ridiculous theories of all time. The constant denial of known physics and cosmology should show that these people have serious mental issues when it comes to distinguishing facts from fiction. They believe that everything NASA says "is a lie" without having any evidence for this claim. They claim that ALL the images taken from numerous space probes are fake and every government in the world is involved in a massive world-wide cover-up. They preach that the magnetic north pole is in the center of the Flat Earth, while the magnetic south pole surrounds the "edge" of the Flat Earth. This defies everything we know about electro-magnetism, quantum physics and gravity.
Flat Earthers have no scientific evidence for any of their claims, which are mostly rooted in religious belief, faith, dogma and the Holy Bible. They choose to "beLIEve" in utter fantastical nonsense as they laugh at the rest of the world for accepting proven reality. We are the "lost souls" that Flat Earthers need to save! Yet, there is not one pilot or sailor that has ever come forward with evidence of Flat Earth. There are no pictures or footage of the "edge" of the world. The Sun is not a "spotlight." There is no "magnetic mountain" at the center of the Flat Earth. There is no heaven above us and no hell below. These are all dogmatic religious ideas... not facts rooted in scientific results.
We are all capable of having an open mind, but it seems that Flat Earthers have opened their minds so much that their brains have fallen out of their heads. They lack and deny basic common truths that have been known about the world for thousands of years. They claim Copernicus, Galileo, Magellan and Newton were all wrong about the earth without anything substantial or logical to back it up. They use Admiral Richard Byrd's exploration of the south pole as "evidence" the earth is flat... yet Admiral Byrd himself has said:
"There's a lot of adventure left DOWN at the BOTTOM of the world."
~ Admiral Richard Byrd
If Admiral Byrd knew the earth was flat, why would he use the terms we all use to describe a sphere? Why wouldn't he say "OVER" at the south pole? I'm willing to bet that Admiral Byrd knew the earth is spherical in shape. Why do Flat Earthers twist and mangle someone's words into a blatant lie? It's because they do not have any real evidence to back up any of their claims. They must paint a false image in order to suck the weak-minded into their dogmatic belief system. This is no different than what religions have done over the centuries. They LIE to the people about the world they live in with the hope of controlling their minds and bodies.
Flat Earthers are no different than religious preachers. They make ridiculous claims, they have no evidence and they rely on the process of Non-thinking called faith. If all they can do is show "Artist Renditions" of a Flat Earth... they have 0% proof. If all they can do is omit almost all of known physics based on speculative theory... they have 0% proof! They also seem to be utterly mathematically challenged. I, personally, have never been more convinced that Flat Earthers are nothing more than a mentally ill cult.
If they are not a cult, they are a controlled psy-op being used to examine humanities levels of willful ignorance, powers of research and logical consciousness, just to name a few things. And from the results that I have witnessed, I'd say that the Flat Earther population has presented us with one of the poorest displays of critical thought in the history of humankind.
It's not that we "want" things to work a certain way... there are fundamental truths that we all must conform with. For example, fire does not burn under water... no one can ever say any different, that's just how it is. Same goes for Earth... there are FIXED fundamentals that we must conform with... mainly geometry. A dodecahedron is a dodecahedron... just as fire does not burn under water. There is no changing that... it just is. I'm all for "speculation"... but it has to at least be within reason when talking about the real world. It's great to have an imagination... but when it molds your behavior and reality it can be pretty dangerous. Plus, there's a huge difference between "Theoretical" and "Hypothetical." The fact that fire does not burn under water is an "ultimate" truth. The fact that light contains no darkness and darkness contains no light is an "ultimate" truth. "Belief" has nothing to do with reality based truth. Belief just molds behavior.
I'll give some credit to Eric Dubay though... the way he reordered all the clips and events, all the proven facts he so graciously left out, his total lack of scientific understanding, etc... he sure did a great job twisting reality into an interesting fantasy.
"The thousands of inventions and innovations spun out from space research have become an integral part of our daily life: weather forecasting, satellite television and communications, disaster relief, traffic management, agricultural and water management, and global positioning system (GPS), are but just a few." - theconversation.com
Earth is a Sphere.
Watch the Amateur video below and ask yourself... if the earth were flat, wouldn't we know?
"Observers from Earth can see two types of eclipses – eclipses of the Sun (Solar Eclipses), and eclipses of the Moon (Lunar Eclipses). These occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon align in a straight or almost straight configuration. Astronomers call this a syzygy, from the ancient Greek word syzygia, meaning to be yoked or conjuncted together. The term eclipse also finds its roots in ancient Greek – it comes from the word ékleipsis, meaning to fail or abandoned. Eclipses, solar and lunar, have fascinated scientists and lay people for centuries. In ancient times, eclipses were seen as phenomena to be feared – many cultures came up with stories and myths to explain the temporary darkening of the Sun or the Moon. In recent centuries, eclipses have been sought after by scientists and astronomers who use the events to study and examine our natural world." - www.timeanddate.com